quarta-feira, 13 de janeiro de 2010

Tolkien , Rackham e o Medo que vem do Mar.


Mor-dredd- Medo do mar. Esse parece ter sido um veio temático explorado amiúde por Tolkien na sua obra ficcional. O mar exerce em Tolkien, ao mesmo tempo, medo e fascínação, atraindo e enchendo de terror. Tanto é que, na prática, Tolkien criou dois "deuses" do Mar para explicar a variabilidade do comportamento do oceano: Ulmo era "profundo" e calmo, poderoso vala cujo nome significa "vertedor" e Ossë, cujo nome lembra Oceano ( um dos deuses titãs e dos numerosos deuses pelágicos dos gregos) era o maia que presidia o mar enquanto força da Natureza indomada e traiçoeira, possuindo uma esposa que era , mormente, calma e que aplacava sua ira , mas que quando entristecida podia fazer o mar se encapelar em vagas que arrastavam as pessoas para o fundo. Vale lembrar que, originalmente,Ossë era um vala como Ulmo era e não um servidor maia deste último.




Tolkien também era um admirador da obra de Arthur Rackam , ilustrador das óperas de Richard Wagner, e esta gravura de sua autoria colada acima mostra a deusa do mar, Ran, esposa meio colérica do deus do mar, Aegir, trazendo à mente o episódio algo similar entre Tuor e Ulmo nas costas de Beleriand.

The graphical representation of literary trees must also be considered,
as illustrations can affect how a reader apprehends the text. Arthur
Rackham, a prime example in the context of this discussion, was perhaps
best known for producing images of trees with human attributes (Hamilton
13).2 Rackham’s credits include Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm (1900
and 1909), Shakespeare’s Macbeth (1908) and The Tempest (1926), Charles
S. Evans’s The Sleeping Beauty (1920), Milton’s Comus (1921), Hans Christian
Andersen’s Fairy Tales (1932), and Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in
the Willows (1940), all of which offered Rackham the opportunity—with
threatening or enchanted woods, trees that speak or are otherwise conscious,
or spirits trapped in trees—to draw anthropomorphic trees (Hamilton
185–86). Although Rackham’s illustrations appear in no text featuring
trees of the third or fourth categories (i.e., trees that physically move
as Primary World trees cannot), his suggestions of arm-like branches,
leg-like roots, and facial features on tree trunks influence how the trees
in these stories have been received. While these trees speak, think, or exude
an ominous aura without moving in ways that Primary World trees
cannot, the vivid corporeal texture of Rackham’s drawings make the
oral, mental, and psychic faculties of these trees explicitly physical. Trees
that belonged—by their authors’ intentions—to the first and second


Vide aí embaixo a citação da biografia do Carpenter



Tom was rescued, and survived to become
the hero of a poem by the children's father, "The Adventures of Tom
Bombadil', which was published in the Oxford Magazine in 1934. It tells
of Tom's encounters with 'Goldberry, the River-woman's daughter', with
the 'Old Man Willow' which shuts him up in a crack of its bole (an idea,
Tolkien once said, that probably came in part from Arthur Rackham's
tree-drawings)
, with a family of badgers, and with a 'Barrow-wight', a
ghost from a prehistoric grave of the type found on the Berkshire Downs
not far from Oxford.(...)


He was by now a very talented artist, although he had not the same skill at drawing figures as he had with landscapes. He was at his best when picturing his beloved trees, and like Arthur Rackham (whose work he admired) he could give to twisted root and branch a sinister mobility that was at the same time entirely true to nature.


Não por acaso, Arthur Rackham foi um notável ilustrador do Anel do Nibelungo, a tetralogia de Richard Wagner.

Um comentário:

Daniel disse...

Olá amigo,

Me chamo Daniel, sou webmaster de um site sbre Tolkien chamado Dúvendor, e gostaria de falar com você sobre seus textos.

Por favor, me adicione no MSN: ddbrs@hotmail.com